The oil revenues that began to accumulate after World War II enabled the Gulf states to modernize, and, by the 1960s and 1970s, to provide generous entitlement programs for their citizens. The state became what political scientists call a “rentier” one: the income from oil accrued directly to the ruler, who provided for his citizens’ economic security in return for their political loyalty. This arrangement bought time for the tribal shaikhs who had been in power before the discovery of oil. It also led to the growth of a “rentier mentality” among the citizenry, who felt a sense of entitlement to riches, whether they worked or not.
This passage shows that having oil as a major resource in the Middle East has a negative effect because at the present moment, the majority of the population receives their filtered income from the royal family, due to their political loyalty. This is because the money coming from exporting oil is enough to support the citizens’ economic state. For this reason, the citizens would not have to work in order to be given payment. However, if the citizens are relying on one natural resource, with a possibility of running out soon, the income of oil would be reduced, and there would be no foreign workers to keep their economy going any longer.